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Choosing the correct propeller for your brushless motor on an RC plane involves considering several factors, including:
Motor KV rating: The KV rating of the motor indicates the number of RPMs it will produce per volt applied, with a higher KV rating indicating a faster spinning motor.
Battery voltage: The battery voltage will affect the RPM of the motor and, in turn, the propeller size needed.
Propeller size: The size of the propeller will determine the amount of thrust produced by the motor, which will affect the speed and maneuverability of the plane.
Weight of the plane: The weight of the plane will affect the amount of thrust needed to get the plane off the ground and keep it in the air.
To determine the correct propeller size, you can use a propeller selection chart or calculator although most motor manufaturers will advise on a suitable range, which will take into account the KV rating of your motor, battery voltage, and plane weight to recommend a range of propeller sizes to choose from.
The difference in KV makes is that a higher KV motor will produce more RPMs for a given voltage, making it better suited for high-speed applications, whereas a lower KV motor will produce less RPMs for a given voltage, making it better suited for applications that require more torque and power.